Ashtanga Yoga – 8 limbs Of Yoga

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Ashtanga Yoga: 8 limbs of Yoga

Ashtanga Yoga is a popular form of yoga that involves eight limbs or steps, as outlined by the ancient sage Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras. The word “ashtanga” translates to “eight limbs” in Sanskrit. These eight limbs are interconnected and serve as a guide for spiritual and physical well-being.

The practice of Ashtanga Yoga emphasizes the importance of developing a disciplined and focused mind and a healthy and strong body. The first two limbs, Yama and Niyama, guide ethical living and self-discipline. In comparison, the remaining six limbs are focused on developing physical and mental strength, concentration, and awareness.

Ashtanga Yoga is known for its physically challenging sequences of postures, also called “asanas,” designed to build strength, flexibility, and stamina. The practice also involves specific breathing techniques, known as “pranayama,” which help to calm the mind and increase vitality.

In this blog, we will explore the eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga in detail and how they can be incorporated into daily yoga to achieve a sense of balance, peace, and harmony.

Eight Limbs Of Ashtanga Yoga

These Eight Limbs of Yoga offer proper steps for holistic personal development to achieve awareness. Patanjali stated that these eight practices of the yoga sutras must be practiced to gain full benefits. 

1. Yama  (ethical principles)

In the Ashtanga Yoga system, the first limb is Yama, which refers to the ethical principles or moral guidelines one should follow. Yama includes five principles, often called the “five restrictions” or “five abstentions.”

  • The first principle is Ahimsa, which means non-violence or non-harming. It encourages us to refrain from causing harm to ourselves or others, whether physically, verbally, or mentally.
  • The second principle is Satya, which means truthfulness. It encourages us to be honest and truthful in our thoughts, words, and actions.
  • The third principle is Asteya, which means non-stealing. It encourages us to refrain from taking what is not rightfully ours, whether material possessions, time, or energy.
  • The fourth principle is Brahmacharya, which means moderation or control of the senses. It encourages us to use our energy wisely and avoid overindulgence or excess.
  • The fifth principle is Aparigraha, which means non-attachment or non-greediness. It encourages us to let go of our attachments to material possessions and to avoid excessive desires or cravings.

You can cultivate a sense of inner peace, harmony, and ethical living by Yama. It lays the foundation for a yogic lifestyle and helps us to develop a deeper understanding and connection with ourselves and others.

2. Niyama (self-discipline)

Niyama is the second limb of Ashtanga Yoga, and it refers to the five observances or self-disciplines that one should practice in daily life. Niyama is often translated as “rules,” “observances,” or “virtues.” It is intended to help individuals develop a positive mindset and establish good habits to support their journey toward self-realization.

The five Niyamas are:

Saucha (cleanliness): Saucha refers to the practice of cleanliness in our external and internal environment. It involves purifying our body, mind, and surroundings through proper hygiene, healthy eating habits, and mindfulness.

Santosha (contentment): Santosha means happiness, which involves finding joy and satisfaction in what we have and who we are rather than constantly striving for more.

Tapas (discipline): Tapas refers to self-discipline and the willingness to sacrifice for spiritual growth. It involves cultivating strong willpower and the determination to overcome obstacles.

Svadhyaya (self-study): Svadhyaya means self-study, and it involves the practice of introspection, self-reflection, and self-awareness. It encourages us to explore our thoughts, emotions, and beliefs and to cultivate a deeper understanding of ourselves.

Ishvara Pranidhana (surrender to a higher power): Ishvara Pranidhana refers to submitting to a higher power. It involves acknowledging that there is a higher power or universal consciousness beyond ourselves and surrendering our ego to this higher power.

These Niyamas can develop a positive mindset and good habits and align themselves with our higher purpose. It helps us to lead a more fulfilling and purposeful life and supports our journey toward self-realization.

3. Asana (physical postures)

Asana, or physical postures, is the third limb of Ashtanga Yoga. It refers to the practice of physical yoga postures that help to develop strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination in the body.

The practice of Asana involves holding various postures for a certain amount of time while focusing on the breath and the sensations in the body. Therefore, it is not just about the physical aspect of the practice but also about the mental focus and concentration required to stay present in each posture.

Many types of Asana range from simple seated postures to more advanced inversions and arm balances. It is essential to approach the practice of Asana with awareness, patience, and a focus on proper alignment to avoid injury and gain the full benefits of the course. In the Ashtanga Yoga system, the practice of Asana is just one aspect of the overall yoga practice, and it is intended to support the development of the other limbs, such as meditation and self-awareness.

4. Pranayama (breathing techniques)

Pranayama, the fourth limb of Ashtanga Yoga, refers to breathing techniques that help control the breath and the flow of vital energy. The practice of Pranayama involves conscious control of the breath, which can profoundly affect the body and mind. Pranayama techniques involve different patterns of breathing, such as deep, slow breathing, holding the breath, and alternating nostril breathing.

The practice of Pranayama has many benefits, including:

  1. Improved respiratory function
  2. Reduced stress and anxiety
  3. Increased energy and vitality
  4. Improved mental focus

Pranayama is typically practiced in combination with Asana, and the two practices support each other in creating a balanced and holistic yoga practice. Therefore, it is essential to approach the practice of Pranayama with awareness and patience and under the guidance of a qualified teacher to gain the full benefits of the exercise. Therefore, you can take our yoga teacher training courses in Rishikesh, India, to learn the different techniques of Pranayama from our certified yoga teachers.

In addition to the physical and mental benefits, Pranayama’s practice can help connect us with the innermost aspects of ourselves and support our spiritual growth and self-realization.

5. Pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses)

Pratyahara, the fifth limb of Ashtanga Yoga, refers to the withdrawal of the senses from external stimuli and turning the attention inward. The practice of Pratyahara involves consciously directing the attention away from the external world and sensory experiences and towards the inner world of thoughts, feelings, and sensations. This is done by developing a heightened sense of awareness and self-control over the reasons.

Pratyahara combines other limbs of Ashtanga Yoga, particularly Dharana (concentration) and Dhyana (meditation). It is considered an essential aspect of the yoga practice, as it lays the foundation for developing higher states of consciousness.

6. Dharana (concentration)

Dharana, the sixth limb of Ashtanga Yoga, is the practice of developing concentration or one-pointed focus. The method of Dharana involves training the mind to focus on a single point, which can be an image, sound, or sensation. This helps quiet the mind and develop deep concentration and focus.

Dharana is an essential practice for developing the mind-body connection, and it is considered a crucial step toward achieving more profound states of meditation and spiritual enlightenment. By cultivating deep concentration and focus through Dharana practice, one can experience various benefits, including improved mental clarity and focus, reduced stress and anxiety, increased self-awareness and introspection, and a heightened spiritual connection. In addition, regular practice of Dharana can also help to overcome distractions and negative thought patterns, leading to a greater sense of inner peace and happiness. Ultimately, Dharana’s approach can help bring more excellent balance and harmony to one’s life, both on and off the yoga mat.

7. Dhyana (meditation)

Dhyana is the seventh limb of Ashtanga Yoga, which refers to meditation. The practice of Dhyana involves focusing the mind on a specific object or point of focus to cultivate a deeper state of awareness and consciousness. This state of meditation involves a relaxed and peaceful mind free from distraction and agitation.

The benefits of the Dhyana practice include the following:

  1. Increased self-awareness: Dhyana practice can help cultivate greater self-awareness and introspection.
  2. Reduced stress and anxiety: It can help to reduce stress and anxiety by calming the mind and promoting relaxation.
  3. Improved mental clarity and focus: Meditation practice can help to improve mental clarity and focus by training the mind to become more disciplined and focused.
  4. Heightened spiritual awareness: It can also support the development of a deeper spiritual understanding and connection with one’s true nature.

Dhyana is often preceded by the practice of Dharana (concentration), which helps develop the necessary focus and concentration level required for successful meditation. In addition, regular exercise of Dhyana can help to bring about a sense of inner peace, clarity, and a deeper understanding of one’s self and the world around them. 

8. Samadhi (enlightenment)

Samadhi is the eighth and final limb of Ashtanga Yoga, and it refers to the ultimate goal of yoga: enlightenment. Practicing Samadhi involves experiencing a state of deep meditative absorption in which the individual becomes wholly absorbed in the object of meditation, losing their sense of individuality and becoming one with the universe. It is considered the highest state of consciousness that yoga can achieve.

Samadhi is considered the most advanced stage of yoga, requiring a deep commitment, discipline, and practice. While it may seem like an unattainable goal, yoga encourages us to continue on the path towards enlightenment, even if we never fully reach the ultimate state of Samadhi. The journey itself is as important as the destination, and practicing yoga can help bring greater peace, joy, and fulfillment into our daily lives.

Ashtanga Yoga – 8 limbs Of Yoga 


Now we know that Ashtanga Yoga provides comprehensive knowledge to help individuals achieve a greater purpose, self-awareness, and spiritual fulfillment. The Eight Limbs of Yoga by Patanjali can seem challenging at first, but with practice and dedication, one can experience the transformative benefits of each limb.

If you are searching for a yoga school as a yoga trainer for Ashtanga Yoga,  Maa Yoga Ashram is the best yoga teacher training school in Rishikesh, offering comprehensive yoga teacher training courses on Ashtanga Yoga and its eight limbs. We guide students toward a yogic lifestyle focusing on ethical principles (Yama) and self-discipline (Niyama). Our training covers physical postures (Asana), breathing techniques (Pranayama), withdrawal of the senses (Pratyahara), concentration (Dharana), meditation (Dhyana), and the ultimate goal of enlightenment (Samadhi).

You can Contact Us via call on +91-8433005197

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